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Tulloss, Rodham E. Amanita distribution in the Americas with comparison to eastern and southern Asia and notes on spore character variation with latitude and ecology. Mycotaxon 93: 189-231. 2005.

ABSTRACT: Similarity of lists of taxa for Amanita sections Amanita, Validae, and Lepidella is computed for lists from six Western Hemisphere regions within the natural ranges of Quercus and the Pinaceae— Prov. Québec, Canada; New Jersey and Long Island, USA; central Mexico; Costa Rica; the Chiricahua Mountains, USA; and Andean Colombia. For the first two sections, the pattern of distribution reflected in similarity measures is compared to similarity measures for areas of southern and eastern Asia in which Quercus and the Pinaceae are also major symbionts of Amanita. Data suggest higher endemism in the American regions than in the Asian ones. Factors that may influence this difference are discussed. Biogeographic affinity was computed for the Western Hemisphere nations with regard to Mexico and for the east Asian regions with regard to southwestern China. Variation of three spore characters (amyloidity, shape, and size) with latitude and habitat is examined and apparent trends reported. Hypotheses are offered for environmental pressures contributing to evolution of spore size and shape and for biogeography of taxa. Data supporting rejection or acceptance of hypotheses are reviewed. The combination Amanita floridana is validated.

KEYWORDS: Amarrendia, central Africa, South America, Torrendia, tropical habitat

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