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Valenzuela F., Eduardo, Dante Pinochet T. & Perla Carias M. Mycological characterization of an Hapludand soil series under three management practices. Mycotaxon 81: 357-366. 2002.

ABSTRACT: A taxonomic study of the fungi present in a Hapludand, Pelchuquín soil series in Valdivia was undertaken with the aim of increasing the knowledge of fungal populations on soils derived from volcanic ashes (known locally as "trumaos"). The objective was to determine the influence of three management practices (secondary native forest, permanent pasture and rotational pasture), the timing of soil sampling, soil sample depth and the effect of soil chemical parameters on fungal population diversity. The soil samples were collected in each of the three sectors during autumn (first sampling) and summer (second sampling) from 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths. Each soil sample was processed by dilution and soil particle washing methods to isolate the fungi. The chemical parameters (pH, P, total N, organic matter content and interchangeable bases) were determined by routine soil analyses. The largest number of taxa (28) was isolated during the first sampling from the permanent pasture management from 0-20 cm and the smallest number (11) during the second sampling from the secondary native forest management from 20-40 cm. The fungal species Absidia cylindrospora, Clonostachys rosea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mortierella vinacea, Myrothecium roridum and Trichoderma koningii were found in the soil of all three sectors and at both sampling times. Cunninghamella bainieri, Mariannaea elegans, Penicillium montanense, Trichocladium opacum and Westerdykella multisporea are reported for the first time in Chile. The values of the chemical parameters measured were inside the ranges indicated for agricultural soils of the Valdivia county. Some variations were detected on the organic matter content, C:N ratio and available P, which could be due to the different soil management practices. When correlated with the chemical parameters, the largest populations and number of species were found in the soil samples at 0-20 cm and were not influenced by sampling time or soil management. The largest values for total N and organic matter content were also found at this depth.

KEYWORDS: fungi, Volcanic soils, native forest, pasture, Chile


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